Thursday, December 12, 2019

Herman Ebbinghaus Essay Example For Students

Herman Ebbinghaus Essay During the late 1800s a new science was emerging in Europe. Psychologys rootscan be traced back to Germany and a man by the name of William Wunt. FollowingWunt other psychologists began emerging in different fields. Of these pioneersHerman Ebbinghaus was one, and his field of study was memory. He performed thefirst experiments in 1885 in Germany and the following is a background on theman and his field. Herman Ebbinghaus was born in 1850 in Germany and died therein 1909. He received his formal education at the Universities of Bonn, Halle,and Berlin (Gale, 1996). Ebbinghaus received degrees in philosophy and historyfrom these universities (Gale, 1996). Ebbinghaus went on to teach at theUniversities of Berlin, Poland, Breslaw and Halle (Gale, 1996). Theseexperiences combined with later experiences with memory combine to giveEbbinghaus a curiosity about memory greater than most of his time. Memory can bedefined as your amount of learning or your stored information. The process ofstoring and retreving information from the brain that is central to learning andthinking (Microsoft Encarta, , 1997). According to Myers (1998) memory isany indication that learning has persisted over time. There are alsofour types of memory classified: recollection, recall, recognition, andrelearning. Recollection is the reconstruction of facts based on clues thatserve as reminders; recall is the active remembering of something from the pastwithout help; recognition is the ability to identify previous stimuli asfamiliar; relearning is material that seems to be easier to remember than othersas if it has been learned before (MSE, 1997). These four types of memorytogether help all people to remember anything from the states capitals to yourbest friends birthday party from second grade. Some researchers say that thereare specific sites dedicated to memory while others say that all the brain workstogether (MSE, 1997). There are tests to determine memory in individuals thatEbbinghaus Ebbinghaus 3 himself developed and will be discussed later. One testthat does involve memory in a way would be the IQ test developed to testchildrens level of intelligence which in turn depends on how much the childremembers. Ebbinghaus served in the Franco-Prussian War then seven years afterthat, decided to tutor in England, France and Berlin (Gale, 1996). It was duringthis time that Ebbinghaus became interested in memory and began to wonder howmemory worked (Gale, 1996). In the journal of Physiological Psychology WilliamWunt said that a test on memory could not be performed (Gale, 1996). Afterreading this Ebbinghaus decided that he would try and test memory himself. Armedwith his curiosity and his knowledge of memory from tutoring Ebbinghaus beganthe tests. He used the same mathematical treatment that Gustav Fechner used inElements of Psychophysics to try and test memory experimentally (Gale, 1996). Ebbinghaus decided to be the subject and the experimenter in this test so hemade a list of nonsense syllables that he would memorize (Myers, 1998). Hecrated 2,300 one syllable consonant-vowel-consonant combinations to make hisstudy easier (Gale, 1996). He made words such as taz, bok, lef so that he couldtest the memorization rather than his previous knowledge of the words. Hedivided the material into lists that he memorized in different conditions (Gale,1996). He measured them at night, in the day, when he was tired, just gotten up,etc. He recorded the average time it took him to memorize the lists perfectlythen altared the test (Gale 1996). According to Gale (1996) he made observationsabout ther effects of such variables as speed, list length, and number ofrepetitions. Ebbinghaus also wanted to test long term and short term memoryretention. He compared the time it took him to memorize any list once with theammount of time it took him to memorize the same list again (Gale, 1996). Hea lso measured immediate Ebbinghaus 4 memory showing that he remembered about sixto eight items off his list after one look (Gale, 1996). Ebbinghaus in testingmemory wanted to know how much he still knew from his lists later. According toMyers (1998) he would test himself on the same material thirty minutes to thirtydays after his initial test. Using the mathematical methods mentioned earlier hecame up with a retention curve showing how much of the information he was ableto retrieve the next day. This figure can be seen on the attatched sheet, Figure9.3. Ebbinghaus discovered that the longer he repeated the list on the first daythe more he remembered on the second day when he was trying to recall theinformation (Myers, 1998). Here is where the principle The amountremembered depends on the time spent learning stems from (Myers 1998). .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f , .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .postImageUrl , .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f , .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:hover , .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:visited , .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:active { border:0!important; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:active , .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ua4681f09300fb0831b1bc1a4be56f61f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Toni Morrison EssayEbbinghaus didnt always remember what he learned though. The amount he forgotcan be seen his forgetting curve (see attached sheet) Figure 9.13. Ebbinghaustested himself up to thirty days after the inital remembering and graphed whathe remembered then (Myers, 1998). The results show that as time increasedpercentage remembered decreases (Myers, 1998). Ebbinghaus did distinguish thatnonsense information is more easily forgotten then everyday material. Accordingto Gale (1996) Ebinghaus tested himself on 420 lists of 16 syllables 340 timeseach, making 14,280 trials. Ebbinghaus studied learning rates for meaningful andmeaningless material concluding that meani ngful items such as sentences andwords could be learned much more efficiently than nonsense syllables (Gale,1996). As a result of Ebbinghaus work more about memory is now known. It isbetter to evenly space memorization rather than memorize it all at once (Gale,1996). Despite Wunts disagreement many still use Ebbinghaus work on memory asa model for research on human memory (Gale, 1996). Ebbinghaus also developed atest for memory in 1894 while studying the mental capacities of children hedeveloped a sentence completion test that is still used today to measureintelligence (Gale, 1996). This was the Ebbinghaus 5 first successful test ofmental ability (Gale, 1996). Ebbinghaus was the cofounder of the first Germanpsychology journal, the Journal of Psychology and Physiology of the Sense Organsin 1890 and wrote two text books: The Principles of Psychology(1902) and ASummary of Psychology (1908). BibliographyBeer, Colin G. (1993). Psychology, Experimental. EncartaEncyclopedia. 1998. Microsoft Corperation. (1993-1998). EducationalPsychology. Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Microsoft Corperation. (1993-1998). Memory and Mental Processes. Microsoft EncartaEncyclopedia. Myers, David. (1998). Psychology. New York. Worth Publishers.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Action Programs and Budget free essay sample

Each strategy identified requires certain tasks to be completed. Moreover, each task must be designated to certain members of the staff. Finally, the cost of each task must be stated and the total cost must be determined in order to come up with a marketing budget for Far Horizon Product Strategy Prepare the wordings for a brochure that highlights the feature, benefits, and advantages of the Far Horizon Convention Center. A member of Far Horizon’s marketing staff should prepare the wordings for the brochure and work together with the designer to ensure that the brochure contains all pertinent information about Far Horizon. Layout and design the brochure A graphic designer must work on this task. He must work together with a member of the marketing stuff t ensure that the theme of the design coincides with that of Far Horizon’s goals and objectives. Distribute brochures to business organizations in the community and in the state. We will write a custom essay sample on Action Programs and Budget or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page A member of the marketing staff must get in touch with the organizations so that they can be informed of the existence of Far Horizon. He can send the brochure as well to introduce Far Horizon to the said organizations and their members. The estimated cost for this strategy is $1200. This includes the layout, design, and printing of the brochures. Distribution costs are likewise included in the said figure Executive Summary Far Horizon is a newly built convention center that aims to serve as a complete venue for special events, gatherings, and functions of both individual and organizational clients. This marketing plan aims to provide Far Horizon with a guide as to what strategies it must carry out in order to accomplish its goals and objectives. In this marketing plan, an overview of the company and its products and services are discussed. Also, this marketing plan highlights the marketing goals and objectives of the firm. Moreover, the strategies of the firm in terms of the 4 segments of the marketing mix are discussed. A timeline, budget, and specific tasks and designation of such tasks are also discussed. Finally, the measures by which the effectiveness of such marketing plan are discussed as well. Come up with the basic rates and rental fees for all facilities of the convention center A member of the marketing staff must work together with a sales and finance staff member to ensure that the rates will coincide with Far Horizon’s cost-plus pricing strategy. This task is allotted 3-4 weeks. Develop discounts and promos for early birds and early reservations This task requires coordination between the sales and marketing staff. This task is allotted 4-5 weeks after the rates are finalized. Promote the customized pricing scheme through promotional flyers. The marketing staff must come up with flyers that discuss how such pricing scheme is advantageous to potential clients. Such information should also be included in other promotional materials such as the brochure. This task is allotted 6-8 weeks once the rates and discounts are finalized. The estimated cost for this strategy is $400. All the information to be gathered by staff members. Their salaries are taken to be part of compensation expenses of the company. The cost for the flyers are inculcated in the cost of the promotional materials which are under another strategy segment.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Man For All Seasons By Thomas More Essays - British Films

Man For All Seasons By Thomas More In the play, A Man For All Seasons, Sir Thomas More is faced with a number of difficult choices, namely whether to support the King's decision to divorce Catherine of Aragon and marry Anne Boleyn and the consequences of that decision. More makes his decision to oppose the marriage early on, but even though it is something he does not waver from, he still has trouble with it, especially when he see the pain it causes to his wife and family. More's antagonists are somewhat obvious, Cromwell, Rich, and to an extent, Norfolk and even his wife, Alice. Cromwell represents the basic evilness and threatens to have More executed for not acquiescing to the marriage, while Rich and Norfolk are representative of the betrayal of Sir Thomas, by giving in to Cromwell and to an extent the King. Lady Alice is an antagonist in the play because of the violent opposition she has for Sir Thomas' decision. Alice is afraid of what may happen to her after Sir Thomas resigns the Chancellorship and what may befall her and her family. Alice's complaints probably have the most impact with More because he does care very deeply about them and might have even caved in to the King, had he not felt that he was correct in his decision and that there was no alternative. More has a very difficult decision in opposing the King and his family, but regardless of the consequences, he feels that he is morally correct and that to choose any other path would be impossible for he could not oppose the Church and God.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Free Essays on Pericles Funeral Speech

Pericles’s Deathless Funeral Speech Even though it has been thousands of years since the speech of Pericles’s many of the issues he touched on still apply today. One issue I am going to touch on that Pericles used in his speech is the military, and how the tactics of war of today’s society are closely related to those back in 430 b.c. Another aspect that I will touch on during this paper is the government. The similarities of government that were used back then and what is used in our country today is mind-boggling. The democracy used in Athenian times is very similar to what is used in the United States today. There were still differing social classes in Athens, as there still is in the United States society thousands of years later. The last aspect that I am taking from the speech is how the grieving and aging process are still very similar to what people in the United States do today when a loved one is lost. The military in Athens opened its doors to the world. It was far different than most other countries. Athenians were not afraid to let people in. They were open to anyone who was interested in seeing what went on in Athens. They were not afraid of opening their doors to foreigners and they did not exclude them from any opportunity of learning or observing, even though this could and probably would come back to hurt them someday. What I mean by this is the enemy would benefit from this by seeing what goes on with their military and this might hurt the Athenians in the long run. That is what was so wonderful about this city. Athenians saw the bad but they always looked at the good side of something. During war the enemies did not invade the country alone but they always brought all their confederates. This was contrary to the Athenians who would advance alone into some hostile ground on foreign soil. They would usually move through countries with ease. Although they never w anted to engage in battle they... Free Essays on Pericles Funeral Speech Free Essays on Pericles Funeral Speech Pericles’s Deathless Funeral Speech Even though it has been thousands of years since the speech of Pericles’s many of the issues he touched on still apply today. One issue I am going to touch on that Pericles used in his speech is the military, and how the tactics of war of today’s society are closely related to those back in 430 b.c. Another aspect that I will touch on during this paper is the government. The similarities of government that were used back then and what is used in our country today is mind-boggling. The democracy used in Athenian times is very similar to what is used in the United States today. There were still differing social classes in Athens, as there still is in the United States society thousands of years later. The last aspect that I am taking from the speech is how the grieving and aging process are still very similar to what people in the United States do today when a loved one is lost. The military in Athens opened its doors to the world. It was far different than most other countries. Athenians were not afraid to let people in. They were open to anyone who was interested in seeing what went on in Athens. They were not afraid of opening their doors to foreigners and they did not exclude them from any opportunity of learning or observing, even though this could and probably would come back to hurt them someday. What I mean by this is the enemy would benefit from this by seeing what goes on with their military and this might hurt the Athenians in the long run. That is what was so wonderful about this city. Athenians saw the bad but they always looked at the good side of something. During war the enemies did not invade the country alone but they always brought all their confederates. This was contrary to the Athenians who would advance alone into some hostile ground on foreign soil. They would usually move through countries with ease. Although they never w anted to engage in battle they...

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Case study 1 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

1 - Case Study Example Many of her contributions are ignored and senses gender hierarchy segregation. Due to this, she starts questioning her own professional competence and how to apply her knowledge and skills when treating new clients. This angers Susan and makes her feel isolated. She decides to discuss her concerns with Daisy, who seems very close to the locals and agrees to mentor Susan. Introduction The society has been found to be highly in denial of the worrying trends. People believe in various myths, a reason why they could have opted not to talk to Susan. There are believes that people who talk about suicide are trying to get attention. People who contemplate on committing suicide after making the decision cannot be stopped from taking away their lives. The assumption that people who commit suicide are crazy and weak is wrong. Other people believe that those people who talks about suicide have the intention of manipulating others is not true. Most of the communities believe that the young peopl e do not think about suicide because they have the whole life to live. Research has revealed a worrying trend on the levels of suicide among the adolescents and young adults. Globally, youth have been found to be faced with a high risk of committing suicide than the old people and the children. The age of vigorous changes in the physiology of the youth and fear of maturity are a reason for this trend. Moreover, the various issues affecting them have been found to have adverse effects, yet more dangerous effects on them. Increased pressure from the society that includes expectations, dreams and ambitions also contribute to the high cases of risk among the youth. Recently, there has been a sharp rise in the number of suicides among the youth around the world. Startling statistics have been reported in various countries due to the sharp increase in cases of suicide. While a number of people have been unsuccessful in suicide attempts, others have successfully committed suicide. A lot of studies have been conducted to determine the risk factors that cause suicide among the adolescent people. One death can have a significant impact on the population health data due to low numbers of this population within the general Australian population context. However, in areas where Aboriginal communities reside, suicide figures are very high. Their lifestyles, the community and society beliefs have a major contribution to the high cases of suicide. This paper will look at the various causes of the increased cases of suicide among the youth in Aboriginal community and the various interventions of dealing with the cases of suicide. Literature Review Research based on population of young people has identified recognized risks for suicide attempts. They include gender, race or ethnicity, historical cases of depression, hopelessness, alcohol use and drug abuse, sexualisation and violence. Factors that are likely to trigger these risks are underlying psychological stress such as mar ginalization, isolation, and rejection. Among other factors, homosexuality has been suggested as a major contributor for suicide. Gay, lesbianism and bisexuality have not been proven to have successful influence on suicide. However, suicides related to gay youth have proved to be difficult due to the social stigma

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

ART Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 12

ART - Essay Example Zellij Panel is made from polychrome earth ware mosaic and resembles a panel of a wall covering from Bahia palace. The famous Bahia Palace in Marrakech, Morrocco incorporated polychrome mosaic with Zellij Panels on the walls of the palace. In fact, this piece originates from this palace as it was rescued during its abolishment. The name Bahia means brilliance. Bahia Palace got its name from the beautiful polychrome mosaic used to build it. Therefore, Zellij Panel is a beautiful art, which adopts a design of star shapes, squares, and triangles (El Khatib-Boujibar web). Zellij Panel comprises of blue and black lines that originate from the centre and cross each other assuming star shapes, squares, and triangles. According to Khatib-Boujibar, Zellij Panel is a Thin network of lines alternating between blue and black spread from a centrepiece. The network consists of 16-pointed stars surrounded by a black fillet to form a large cross shape delimited by black knot work. On the inside, the re is a myriad of small white twinkling stars (web). Another set of yellow lines join the network outside the centre making larger compositions and star motifs. Zellij Panel use lines that pass around an enclosed area in horizontal, vertical, diagonal, and curve shapes to create three-dimensional shapes. According to Getty Museum, â€Å"A line is an identifiable created by a point moving into space,† (web). These shapes express breadth, length, and depth. The shapes created by different lines create balance to the space, texture, and the colours used. The balance created is symmetrical since similar lines pass through every direction of the square. The central part has a radial balance and although some lines differ on the sides, a symmetrical balance is still achieved. The artist emphasized the central part by making it lighter than the other parts to depict the source of the lines flowing form it. The artist uses colour to capture

Monday, November 18, 2019

Servicescape Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Servicescape - Coursework Example ines the impact of servicescape on Las Iguanas restaurant in terms of the emotional, cognitive and physiological effect that the business environment has on customers and employees. Las Iguanas is a popular restaurant chain in the United Kingdom with major branches in London, Liverpool, Newcastle and other towns and cities. The company’s restaurants are located in different environments with each environment bringing its unique opportunities and challenges to the company’s marketing strategy. This study is based on the company’s branch in Liverpool. The study employed a stratified sampling technique to collect data through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews based on a sample size of five employees and five customers of the restaurant. After a detailed analysis, it was clear that the physical environment and ambience of the company had a huge impact on the organization’s operations. All the respondents admitted to having been influenced by the restaurant’s physical environment and ambience. From the findings, 90% of the respondents were positively influenced by the restaurant’s physical environment and ambience, 8% were negatively influenced, while the other 2% were unsure as to whether the business’ environment had a role to play in their association with the restaurant. This studys objective was to focus on assessing the impact of servicescape on customers and employees of Las Iguanas restaurant in Liverpool. Servicescape refers to an organizations ambience and physical environment. This study applies the servicescape model on one of the prominent restaurant businesses in the UK, the Las Iguanas Restaurant. This will assess the impact of Las Iguanas physical environment and ambience on its marketing activities in order to provide appropriate recommendations to the management team of the business for necessary improvements. The study is guided by the research question, what is the emotional, cognitive and physiological effect that Las